Woodpecker References

Image Credit: 2016 Ichiban Yada 2016, CC BY 4.0

Here is a list of woodpecker books, scientific studies and other resources I used when writing articles about woodpeckers and solving woodpecker damage problems.


 Woodpeckers of the World: The Complete Guide, by Gerard Gorman; A&C Black, Jun. 19, 2014

Ecology and Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds, Edited by Walter D. Koenig, Janis L. Dickinson, Cambridge University Press, Apr. 22, 2004

Better Birding: Tips, Tools, and Concepts for the Field, by George L. Armistead, Brian L. Sullivan, Princeton University Press, Dec. 8, 2015

Handbook of the Birds of the World: Jacamars to woodpeckers, Volume 7, by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal, Buteo Books, 2002

Peterson Reference Guide to Woodpeckers of North America, by Stephen Shunk, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, May 10, 2016


Studies, Articles and Pamphlets

Flight-feather Molt Patterns and Age in North American Woodpeckers, Peter Pyle and Steve N.G. Howe, J. Field Ornithol., 66(4):564-581

The Basics: Feather Molt, The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, April 20, 2008 as seen on allaboutbirds.org, March 14, 2018

Woodpeckers: Acorn Woodpecker and Gila Woodpecker, by Jay W. Sharp, as seen on DesertUSA.com, March 14, 2018

The Woodpeckers of the Eastern Texas Pineywoods by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Service

The Pileated Woodpecker as a Keystone Habitat Modifier in the Pacific Northwest by Keith B. Aubry and Catherine M. Raley, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002.

Management Plan for the Lewis’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in Canada, Environment Canada, 2014.

Recovery Strategy for the Lewis’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in Canada [Proposed], Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa. vi + 40 pp, 2016

Lewis’s Woodpecker Melanerpes lewis, by Martin Gebauer, Accounts and Measures for Managing Identified Wildlife – Accounts V. 2004

Feather in Amber is Earliest New World Fossil of Picidae, Roxie C. Laybourne, Douglas W. Deedrick, and Francis M. Hueber. Wilson Bulletin, 106(l), 1994, pp. 18-25

Pileated woodpecker, Audubon Guide to North American Birds as seen on www.audubon.org, , March 14, 2018

Pileated Woodpecker, Holden Arboretum as seen on www.holdenarb.org, March 14, 2018

Black-backed Woodpecker, Guide to Boreal Birds, as seen on www.borealbirds.org, March 14, 2018

Woodpecker fossil named for Mandela on eve of his birthday, July 17, 2012, Science X as seen on www. phys.org March 14, 2018

Why woodpeckers can hammer without getting headaches by Eldon Greij, 2013, Birdwatching as seen on www.birdwatchingdaily.com March 15, 2018

Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker, Joseph Haydock and Walter D. Koenig, PNAS 2002 May, 99 (10) 7178-7183. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.102624199

Woody the Acorn (Not Pileated) Woodpecker, March 10, 2009 by Julie Zickefoose, National Public Radio, as seen on www.npr.org March 10, 2018

Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation by Wang L, Cheung JT-M, Pu F, Li D, Zhang M, Fan Y (2011). PLoS ONE 6(10): e26490. As seen at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026490, March 8,2018

Native bark-foraging birds preferentially forage in infected ash (Fraxinus spp.) and prove effective predators of the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), Charles E. Flower, Lawrence C. Long, Kathleen S. Knight, Joanne Rebbeck, Joel S. Brown, Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler, Christopher J. Whelan, Forest Ecology and Management 313 (2014) 300–306

Feeding Birds, 1988 by Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye as seen on https://web.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Feeding_Birds.html on March 17, 2018.

Woodpecker Woes: The Right Tree Can Be Hard to Find, Teresa Lorenz, Science Findings 199, August 2017, US Dept of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station

East Cascades Audubon Society Lewis’s Woodpecker Project, as seen on http://www.ecaudubon.org/lewiss-woodpeckers-nestboxes, March 17, 2018

Nest Site Characteristics of Lewis’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in Riparian Systems of Western Montana, 2013, Megan Fylling, The University of Montana, Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers. Paper 699.

Reproductive Behavior of Red-bellied Woodpeckers, by Lawrence Kilham, Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 3, September 1961, p. 254

Courtship and Territorial Behavior of Hairy Woodpeckers, by Lawrence Kilham, The Auk Vol 77 No. 3, July 1960

Woodpeckers in urban environments: A review on mitigating damage to buildings, Stefan van der Wal, thesis, Environmental Biology master program at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 2013

Woodpecker Damage Control

External characteristics of houses prone to woodpecker damage, Harding et al, Human–Wildlife Conflicts 3(1):136–144, Spring 2009

Assessment of management techniques to reduce woodpecker damage to homes, Harding, E. G., P. D. Curtis, and S. L. Vehrencamp, 2007, Journal of Wildlife Management, 71: 2061-2066.

How to Prevent Woodpeckers from Damaging Buildings, July 2000, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program

Woodpecker Ecology and Damage Management Fact Sheet, by Scott Craven and David Drake, 2012, University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Wisconsin counties

WOODPECKERS (1994). The Handbook: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage by Rex E. Marsh 75, http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdmhandbook/75

Review of international research literature regarding the effectiveness of auditory bird scaring techniques and potential alternatives, J. Bishop, H. McKay, D. Parrott and J. Allan, December 2003 (Report for UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, as seen online, March 25, 2018.)

Evaluation of Sonic Dissuader® to Reduce Damage by Pileated Woodpeckers, Tupper et al, Wildlife Society Bulletin 35(1):40–44; 2011

Evaluation of methyl anthranilate as a woodpecker repellent, J.L. Belant , T.W. Seamans , R.A. Dolbeer & P.P. Woronecki,  International Journal of Pest Management Volume 43, 1997, Pages 59-62

Woodpecker Damage: A Simple Solution to a Common Problem, by Clifford E. Shackelford, Texas Parks and Wildlife, 2000

Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons, B. Stock and D. Haag-Wackernagel, Animals (Basel), 2014 Mar; 4(1): 1–15, as seen on https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494298/ March 25, 2018


Online resources

Wikipedia – various pages, www.wikipedia.org

Birds of North America database by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, www.birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home

Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management: Woodpeckers, Rex E. Marsh, as seen on http://icwdm.org/handbook/birds/Woodpeckers.asp, March 24, 2018

Woodpeckers, www.beautyofbirds.com as seen on March 14, 2018

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2017-3. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Woodpecker DEEP fact sheet, as seen on www.ct.gov, March 14, 2018

Woodworking Projects for Backyard Wildlife, Downy and Hairy Woodpecker Nest box, Washington Dept of Fish and Wildlife Living with Wildlife section as seen on https://wdfw.wa.gov/living/projects/downy.html March 17, 2018

Action: Provide artificial nesting sites for woodpeckers, Conservation Evidence, as seen on https://www.conservationevidence.com/actions/496 March 17, 2018